The US Department of Energy publication, Operations & Maintenance Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (G. P. Sullivan, R. Pugh, A. P. Melendez, W. D. Hunt, December 2002) highlights O&M programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment.
The introduction to this guide states
Effective O&M is one of the most cost-effective methods for ensuring reliability, safety, and energy efficiency. Inadequate maintenance of energy-using systems is a major cause of energy waste in both the Federal government and the private sector. Energy losses from steam, water and air leaks, uninsulated lines, maladjusted or inoperable controls, and other losses from poor maintenance are often considerable. Good maintenance practices can generate substantial energy savings and should be considered a resource. Moreover, improvements to facility maintenance programs can often be accomplished immediately and at a relatively low cost.
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